You are tasked to automate the installation and deployment of new host added into your company
vSphere cluster using Auto Deploy. Ensure Auto Deploy and Image Builder is set to start
automatically every time vCenter Server is restarted. Use the web client and VCSA0la to perform this
Confirm that the auto deploy plugin is available in the web interface. You may be required to logout
and log back in after enabling the services.
The vCenter server is required to retrieve software from an online depot. You are to use the depot
provided below and ensure that Auto Deploy is always running even, with restart of vCenter server.
URL https / / hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUB/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml
Note: ignore error that you received on cannot connect to depot. This is expected due to vCSA do not
have internet connection.
Create a deploy Rule on VCSA0la based on information below. You do not need to apply to any host
at this time.
Specify Rule to match Vendor: Dell
Check 'Do Not Include Image Profile"
Check 'Do Not Include Host Profile"
Select host location: Choose cluster PROD-A
Before you can use vSphere ESXi Image Builder with thevSphere Web Client, you must verify that the
service is enabled and running.
Log in to yourvCenter Serversystem by using thevSphere Web Client.
On thevSphere Web ClientHome page, clickAdministration.
SelectImageBuilder Service, click theActionsmenu, and selectEdit Startup Type.
On Windows, the vSphere ESXi Image Builder service is disabled. In theEdit Startup Typewindow,
selectManualorAutomaticto enable Auto Deploy.
On thevCenter Server Appliance, the vSphere ESXi Image Builder service by default is set toManual.
If you want the service to start automatically upon OS startup, selectAutomatic.
If you select the manual startup type, you must start the service manually upon OS startup every
time you want to use the service.
(Optional)Click theStart the serviceicon.
(Optional)If you want to use vSphere ESXi Image Builder with thevSphere Web Client, log out of
thevSphere Web Clientand log in again.
TheAuto Deployicon is visible on the Home page of thevSphere Web Client.
Your security team is getting ready for an audit and wants to check the status of all ESXI hosts'
outstanding security patches. Create a new fixed Update Manager baseline for all security ESXi host
patches and name it ''Security patches. ''Use the patches available in the patch repository. Use
VCSA01a in this task.
Baseline Name: Security Patches
Baseline Type: Host Patch
The Update Manager displays system managed baselines that are generated by vSAN. These
baselines appear by default when you use vSAN clusters with ESXi hosts of version 6.0 Update 2 and
later in your vSphere inventory. If your vSphere environment does not contain any vSAN clusters, no
system managed baselines are created.
The system managed baselines automatically update their content periodically, which requires
Update Manager to have constant access to the Internet. The vSAN system baselines are typically
refreshed every 24 hours.
You use system managed baselines to upgrade your vSAN clusters to recommended critical patches,
drivers, updates or the latest supported ESXi host version for vSAN.
System managed baselines cannot be edited or deleted. You do not attach system managed
baselines to inventory objects in your vSphere environment. You can create a baseline group of
multiple system managed baselines, but you cannot add any other type of basline to that group.
Similarly, you cannot add a system managed baseline to a baseline group that contains upgrade,
patch, and extension baselines.
As a member of the virtual infrastructure team, you have been tasked with creating a new guest
customization specification and deploying a test virtual machine from an existing legacy template
migrated from an old VMware VI3 environment
To complete this task:
Deploy a new virtual machine with the name VM-GuestCust to esxi02a.vclass.local in cluster PROD-A
using the following details:
vCenter Server: vcsa01a.vdass.local
The virtual machine requires an additional network card with the type VMXNET3.
Create a new Guest Customization Spec with the name Custom-Spec using the following details:
Operating System: Windows Server 2008 R2
The computer name must use the virtual machine name . Timezone must be set to America/Central
IPv4 and IPv6 are set to DHCP but require a static DNS entry of 172.20.10.10
The computer must join the domain vclass.local using the following credentials:
Select Menu > Policies and Profiles, and under Policies and Profiles, click VM Customization
Click the Create a new specification icon.
The New VM Guest Customization Specification wizard opens.
On the Name and target OS page, enter a name and description for the customization specification
and select Windows as a target guest OS.
(Optional) Select the Generate a new security identity (SID) option and click Next.
A Windows Security ID (SID) is used in some Windows operating systems to uniquely identify
systems and users. If you do not select this option, the new virtual machine has the same SID as the
virtual machine or template from which it was cloned or deployed.
Duplicate SIDs do not cause problems when the computers are part of a domain and only domain
user accounts are used. However, if the computers are part of a Workgroup or local user accounts are
used, duplicate SIDs can compromise file access controls. For more information, see the
documentation for your Microsoft Windows operating system.
On the Set Registration Information page, enter the virtual machine owners name and organization
and click Next.
On the Computer name page, enter a computer name for the guest operating system and a domain
The operating system uses the computer name to identify itself on the network. On Linux systems, it
is called the host name.
Use the virtual machine
Select this option to use the virtual machine name. The computer
name that vCenter Server creates is identical to the name of the
virtual machine on which the guest operating system is running. If
the name exceeds 63 characters, it is truncated.
Enter a name in the
Select this option to be prompted to enter a name during cloning
Enter a name
Enter a name.
The name can contain alphanumeric characters and a hyphen (-).
It cannot contain a period (.), blank spaces, or special characters,
and cannot contain digits only. Names are not case-sensitive.
(Optional) To ensure that the name is unique, select the Append a
numeric value check box.
This action appends a hyphen followed by a numeric value to the
virtual machine name. The name is truncated if it exceeds 63
characters when combined with the numeric value.
Generate a name using the
Optional: Enter a parameter that can be passed to the custom
configured with vCenter
On the Windows license page, provide licensing information for the Windows operating system and
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
For server operating
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
Select Include Server License Information.
Select either Per seat or Per server.
If you select Per server, enter the maximum number of simultaneous
connections for the server to accept.
On the Set Administrator Password page, configure the administrator password for the virtual
machine and click Next.
Enter a password for the administrator account and confirm the password by typing it again.
(Optional) Select the Automatically logon as Administrator check box to log users in to the guest
operating system as Administrator, and select the number of times to log in automatically.
On the Time zone page, select the time zone for the virtual machine and click Next.
(Optional) On the Run Once page, specify commands to run the first time a user logs in to the guest
operating system and click Next.
See the Microsoft Sysprep documentation for information about RunOnce commands.
On the Network page, select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system and
Select Use standard network settings so that vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a
DHCP server by using the default settings.
Select Manually select custom settings and configure each network interface yourself.
Select a network adapter from the list or add a new one.
For the selected NIC, click the vertical ellipsis icon and select Edit.
The Edit Network dialog box opens.
Click the IPv4 tab to configure the virtual machine to use IPv4 network.
You can configure all the settings at that stage or you can select the Prompt the user for an IPv4
address when the specification is used option. In that case, vCenter Server prompts for an IP address
when you select to apply that customization specification during cloning or deployment. With that
option, you can also configure the gateways during cloning or deployment.
Click the IPv6 tab to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
You can configure all the settings at that stage or you can select the Prompt the user for an address
when the specification is used option. In that case, vCenter Server prompts for an IP address when
you select to apply that customization specification during cloning or deployment. With that option,
you can also configure the gateways during cloning or deployment.
Click the DNS tab to specify DNS server details.
Click WINS to specify primary and secondary WINS server information.
Click OK to close the Edit Network dialog box.
On the Set Workgroup or Domain page, select how the virtual machine participates in the network
and click Next.
Enter a workgroup name. For example, MSHOME.
Enter the domain name.
To add a computer to the specified domain, enter the user name and
password for a user account that has permission.
On the Ready to complete page, review the details and click Finish to save your changes.
The company's IT strategy is to adopt innovative and emerging technologies such as software-
defined storage solution. The IT team has decided to run their business-critical workloads on an all-
The IT team has purchased servers that are compatible with vSAN. However, all the solid-state drives
(SSD) in the servers are shown incorrectly as hard-disk drives (HDD) instead.
In addition, some of the solid-state drives (SSD) will be used for other purposes instead of vSAN and
should not be part of the vSAN cluster. These are the requirements for the vSAN cluster:
In each server, use the 3GB SSD as the cache tier and the 11GB SSD as the capacity tier
As a result the vSAN cluster will use a total of six SSDs (three SSDs for caching and three SSDs for
Ensure all the disks that will be used for vSAN are shown correctly as SSDs
Provide storage savings by using deduplication and compression.
Next, the IT team wants to improve the performance and availability of the business-critical
workloads on the vSAN-datastore.
Ensure the following configurations will be applied on existing and new workloads located on vSAN-
Number of disk stripes per object: 2
Primary level of failures to tolerate: 2
Failure tolerance method: RAID-1 (Mirroring)
Force provisioning; Yes
The new configurations should be applied by default.
You may create new storage policy but do not edit the default vSAN storage policy as it may be used
by other vSAN clusters in the future. Name the policy "New vSAN Default'.
Nate-. All tasks should be executed in PROD-A host cluster.
VMware vSphere ESXi can use locally attached SSDs (Solid State Disk) and flash devices in multiple
ways. Since SSDs offer much higher throughput and much lower latency than traditional magnetic
hard disks the benefits are clear. While offering lower throughput and higher latency, flash devices
such as USB or SATADOM can also be appropriate for some use cases. The potential drawback to
using SSDs and flash device storage is that the endurance can be significantly less than traditional
magnetic disks and it can vary based on the workload type as well as factors such as the drive
capacity, underlying flash technology, etc.
This KB outlines the minimum SSD and flash device recommendations based on different
technologies and use case scenarios.
SSD and Flash Device Use Cases
A non-exhaustive survey of various usage models in vSphere environment are listed below.
Host swap cache
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.1 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs. USB and
low end SATA or SCSI flash devices are not supported.
The workload is heavily influenced by the degree of host memory over commitment.
A (local) SSD is used instead of a hard disk drive.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 7.0 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs.
There is currently no support for USB connected SSDs or for low end flash devices regardless of
vSphere Flash Read Cache (aka Virtual Flash)
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.5 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs.
There is no support for USB connected SSDs or for low end flash devices.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.5 for SATA and SCSI SSDs. For more
information, see the
vSAN Hardware Quick Reference Guide
vSphere ESXi Boot Disk
A USB flash drive or SATADOM or local SSD can be chosen as the install image for ESXi, the vSphere
hypervisor, which then boots from the flash device.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 3.5 for USB flash devices and vSphere 4.0 for
SCSI/SATA connected devices.
Installation to SATA and SCSI connected SSD, SATADOM and flash devices creates a full install image
which includes a logging partition (see below) whereas installation to a USB device creates a boot
vSphere ESXi Coredump device
The default size for the coredump partition is 2.5 GiB which is about 2.7 GB and the installer creates a
coredump partition on the boot device device for vSphere 5.5 and above. After installation the
partition can be resized if necessary using partedUtil. For more information, see the
Any SATADOM or SATA/SCSI SSD may be configured with a coredump partition.
This usage model has been supported from vSphere 3.5 for boot USB flash devices and since vSphere
4.0 for any SATA or SCSI connected SSD that is local.
This usage model also applies to Autodeploy hosts which have no boot disk.
vSphere ESXi Logging device
A SATADOM or local SATA/SCSI SSD is chosen as the location for the vSphere logging partition
(/scratchpartition). This partition may be but need not be on the boot disk and this applies to
Autodeploy hosts which lack a boot disk.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 7.0 for any SATA or SCSI connected SSD that is
local. SATADOMs that meet the requirement set forth in Table 1 are also supported.
This usage model can be supported in a future release of vSphere for USB flash devices that meet the
requirement set forth in Table 1.
SSD Endurance Criteria
The flash industry often uses Tera Bytes Written (TBW) as a benchmark for SSD endurance. TBW is
the number of terabytes that can be written to the device over its useful life. Most devices have
distinct TBW ratings for sequential and random IO workloads, with the latter being much lower due
to Write Amplification Factor (WAF) (defined below). Other measures of endurance commonly used
are DWPD (Drive Writes Per Day) and P/E (Program/Erase) cycles.
Conversion formulas are provided here:
Converting DWPD (Drive Writes Per Day) to TBW (Terabytes Written):
TBW = DWPD * Warranty (in Years) * 365 * Capacity (in GB) / 1,000 (GB per TB)
Converting Flash P/E Cycles per Cell to TBW (Terabytes Written):
TBW = Capacity (in GB) * (P/E Cycles per Cell) / (1,000 (GB per TB) * WAF)
WAF is a measure of the induced writes caused by inherent properties of flash technology. Due to the
difference between the storage block size (512 bytes), the flash cell size (typically 4KiB or 8KiB bytes)
and the minimum flash erase size of many cells one write can force a number of induced writes due
to copies, garbage collection, etc. For sequential workloads typical WAFs fall in the range of single
digits while for random workloads WAFs can approach or even exceed 100. Table 1 contains
workload characterization for the various workloads excepting the Datastore and vSphere Flash Read
Cache workloads which depend on the characteristics of the Virtual Machines workloads being run
and thus cannot be characterized here. A WAF from the table can be used with the above P/E to TBW
Your storage administrator is concerned about a new application being deployed on virtual machine
(SIOCVM) in your vSphere 7.x environment.
You've been asked to create and apply a storage policy to make sure that the SIOCVM virtual
machine does not exceed 500 IOPS.
Note: Name the Storage Policy 500IOPSLimit
Storage I/O Control v2
Storage I/O Control (SIOC) was initially introduced in vSphere 4.1 to provide I/O prioritization of
virtual machines running on a cluster of ESXi hosts that had access to shared storage. It extended the
familiar constructs of shares and limits, which existed for CPU and memory, to address storage
utilization through a dynamic allocation of I/O queue slots across a cluster of ESXi servers. The
purpose of SIOC is to address the noisy neighbor problem, i.e. a low priority virtual machine
impacting other higher priority virtual machines due to the nature of the application and its I/O
running in that low priority VM.
vSphere 5.0 extended SIOC to provide cluster-wide I/O shares and limits for NFS datastores. This
means that no single virtual machine should be able to create a bottleneck in any environment
regardless of the type of shared storage used. SIOC automatically throttles a virtual machine which is
consuming a disparate amount of I/O bandwidth when the configuredlatency thresholdhas been
exceeded. To allow other virtual machines receive their fair share of I/O bandwidth on the same
datastore, a share based fairness mechanism has been created which now is supported on both NFS
vSphere 5.1 introduced a new SIOC feature called Stats Only Mode. When enabled, it doesnt enforce
throttling but gathers statistics to assist Storage DRS. Storage DRS now has statistics in advance for
new datastores being added to the datastore cluster & can get up to speed on the datastores
profile/capabilities much quicker than before.
Another 5.1 feature was Automatic Threshold Computation. The default latency threshold for SIOC is
30ms. Not all storage devices are created equal so this default was chosen as a sort of catch-all.
There are certain devices which will hit their natural contention point much earlier than others, for
example All Flash Arrays, in which case the threshold should be lowered by the user. However,
manually determining the correct latency can be difficult for users. This gave rise to the need for the
latency threshold to get automatically determined at a correct level for each device. Using the I/O
injector modeling of SIOC, peak throughput and corresponding latency of a datastore is measured.
The latency threshold value at which Storage I/O Control will kick in is then set to 90% of this peak
value (by default). vSphere administrators can change this 90% to another percentage value or they
can still input a millisecond value if they so wish.
The default latency threshold for SIOC can be reduced to as low as 5ms.
SIOC V1 Overview
SIOC V1 is disabled by default. It needs to be enabled on a per datastore level, and it is only utilized
when a specific level of latency has been reached. By default, the latency threshold for a datastore is
set to 30ms, as mentioned earlier. If SIOC is triggered, disk shares (aggregated from all VMDKs using
the datastore) are used to assign I/O queue slots on a per host basis to that datastore. In other
words, SIOC limits the number of IOs that a host can issue. The more VMs/VMDKs that run on a
particular host, the higher the number of shares, and thus the higher the number of IOs that that
particular host can issue. The throttling is done by modifying the device queue depth of the various
hosts sharing the datastore. When the period of contention passes, and latency returns to normal
values, the device queue depths are allowed to return to default values on each host.
SIOC V2 Introduction
Before describing SIOC V2, it should be highlighted that SIOC V1 and SIOC V2 can co-exist on vSphere
6.5. This makes it much simpler when considering upgrades, or migrations between versions. With
that in mind, SIOC V2 is considerably different from a user experience perspective when compared to
V1. SIOCv2 is implemented using IO Filter framework Storage IO Control category. SIOC V2 can be
managed using SPBM Policies. What this means is that you create a policy which contains your SIOC
specifications, and these policies are then attached to virtual machines.
Creating an SIOC policy based
Creating an SIOC policy is done is exactly the same way as building a storage policy for VSAN or
Virtual Volumes. Select the VM Storage Policy from the vSphere client home page, and from there
select the option to create a new VM Storage Policy. VM Storage Policies in vSphere 6.5 has a new
option called Common Rules. These are used for configuring data services provided by hosts, such
as Storage I/O Control and Encryption.
Use common rules in the VM storage policy
The first step is to click on the check box to enabled common rules. This will then allow you to add
components, such as SIOC, to the policy.
Add Component Storage I/O Control
In vSphere 6.5, there are two components available for common rules, Encryption and Storage I/O
Control. Select Storage I/O Control in this case. Now you can select Normal, High, Low or Custom
This table describes the different Limits,Shares and Reservations associated with each setting:
When the policy has been created, it may be assigned to newly deployed VMs during provisioning,or
to already existing VMs by assigning this new policy to the whole VM (or just an individual VMDK) by
editing its settings. One thing to note is that IO Filter based IOPS does not look at the size of the IO.
For example, there is no normalization so that a 64K IOP is not equal to 2 x 32K IOPS. It is a fixed
value of IOPS irrespective of the size of the IO.
If neither of the values in the Normal, High, Low allocations is appropriate, there is the ability to
create custom settings for these values. In a custom setting, IOPS limit and IOPS reservation are both
set to -1, implying unlimited. These may be modified as required.
This is an advanced parameter that was created for SIOC V1 only. SIOC V2 does not have
SchedCostUnit implemented. For V1, SchedCostUnit determines the unit size (normalized size) of an
IO operation for scheduling, and it is currently a constant value of 32K. This constant value, however,
may not satisfy different requirements from different customers. Some customers may want to set
this unit size to 4K. Other customers may want to set it up to 256K.
To satisfy these different requirements, SchedCostUnit is now configurable. It defaults to an IO size
value of 32K, and allowable values range between 4K to 256K.
The SchedCostUnit dictates how requests are counted. A request with size <= SchedCostUnit counts
as a single I/O. Anything greater than SchedCostUnit will be counted as 2 or more requests.
For example, by changing the SchedCostUnit from 32K to 64K, the number of IOPS observed will
halve. The size of the IO can be set using the:
esxcli system settings advanced set -o /Disk/SchedCostUnit -i 65536
and verified by using the
"esxcli system settings advanced list -o /Disk/SchedCostUnit
command. SIOC V2 counts guest IO directly. IOPS will be counted based on IO count, regardless of
the IO size.
When limits are set on VMDKs, requests could have high average latency because the limit was
enforced at a high (per request) granularity. This was due to the strict enforcement on a VM getting
its share of IOs in interval of 1 second/L, where L is the user specified limit. The issue is more visible
in fast storage, such as flash arrays. It was noted that SIOC V2 did not perform well when presented
with a bursty workload on fast storage.
This SchedReservationBurst setting relaxes that constraint so a VM get its share of IOs at any time
during a 1 second window, rather than enforce strict placement of IOs in intervals of 1/L. BURST
option is turned-on by default.
SIOC V2 Limitations
In this initial release of SIOC V2 in vSphere 6.5, there is no support for vSAN or Virtual Volumes. SIOC
v2 is only supported with VMs that run on VMFS and NFS datastores.
You have been asked to create a new datastore for the Production cluster; however, the ESXi host
esxi02a is not able to add the datastore. Your storage team has determined that there is nothing
incorrect with the storage presentation.
Troubleshoot why host esxi02a is not able to create the datastore. Add the datastore to the host once
the proper configuration has been applied, and then reboot the host!
Use the following information to complete this task;
ESXi host: esxi02a
Datastore Name: new_datastore
Datastore target: iSCSI Target
Datastore LUN: 4
Reboot the host
Cannot create a new datastore from vCenter Server or directly from the vSphere Client
Creating a new datastore fails
Call HostDatastoreSystem.QueryVmfsDatastoreCreateOptions for object ha-datastoresystem on
An internal error occurred in the vsphere client.
The size of the LUN is more than 2TB - 512 bytes. The maximum LUN size in vSphere 4 is 2TB - 512
bytes. For more information on this limitation, see
Troubleshooting a LUN that is extended in size
past the 2TB/2047GB limit (1004230)
The LUN being presented was used as an RDM earlier and does not have a valid partition table.
The LUN being presented was used as a disk device on an other operating system and does not have
a valid partition table.
The LUN contains a GPT partition that cannot be removed.
To prevent this issue:
Ensure that the LUN size is less than 2TB - 512 bytes or 2047GB. If the LUN is larger then 2TB - 512
bytes, delete it from your Storage Array and recreate it with a size less than the 2TB - 512 bytes limit.
If the disk was used by another operating system in the past (I.E.: it was an RDM, or Linux, FreeBSD,
or other filesystem) or contains a GPT partition, you must delete the partition information.For more
A new internal network is required to isolate virtual machines for security analysis. The virtual
machine (honeypot-01) should reside on a new virtual standard switch with the ability for all traffic
on the switch to be monitored.
Add a new virtual switch to accommodate this requirement and configure (honeypot-01) to reside on
Use the following information to complete this task:
ESXi host: esxi0la
Standard Switch: Create a new Standard Switch
Physical uplink: NO UPLINK
Network Label: QUARANTINE
VLAN: none specified
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The IT Team recently implemented a Unified Communication Service to provide conferencing for the
organization. The UCS Application server is running from a virtual machine named VM1-UCS. Due to
the nature of the UCS. the traffic for VM1-UCS has a higher Class of Service (CoS) demand.
In order to meet demand bandwidth for VM1 hosting the UCS. you been have given the task to
improve performance by isolating the traffic and configuring CoS for this VM.
Your first task is to connect VM1-UCS to the distributed port group. UCS-Portgroup.
Your second task is to tag and mark the traffic for VM1-UCS with the following parameters:
Name: UCS Network Traffic
CoS Value: 4
DSCP Value: 34
Traffic Direction: Ingress/Egress
Traffic Qualifier: System Traffic - Virtual Machine
The IT Team noticed that some of the parameter where not available on the distributed switch.
Troubleshoot why these settings are missing and fix it.
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The current vSphere environment will be adding new ESXi hosts that will be used to create a QA
compute cluster. This cluster should have HA properties specific to the workloads that will be running
In preparation of adding the new hosts, create the new cluster. QA-Cluster in. Datacenter-PROD on
vcsa0la.vclass.local with the following HA requirements:
The cluster should not contain any ESXi hosts or VMs
Hosts should be monitored.
VMs should be restarted in the event of a host failure.
VMs should be restarted if guest heartbeats are not detected.
In the case of a host becoming isolated, shutdown and restart VMs.
If there is an All Paths Down event, any affected VMs must be moved to another host.
Reserve 10% of memory and CPU for failover capacity.
You have been given a requirement for a virtual machine to have no downtime when an ESXi host
failure occurs. Configure Fault Tolerance on VM1-FT in the PROD-B cluster. Use any compatible
secondary host and datastore. Configure the following advanced cluster settings. Use SAN01 as the
storage during configuration.
Note: ignore any related host, customer, or bandwidth warnings as long as fault tolerance is
configured and VM1-FT is running.
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Due to budget constraints, the development team must place its virtual machines on the same ESXi
hosts as the production virtual machines. In order to prevent resource contention caused by the
development workload, you must limit their resources.
On Cluster PROD-A create a resource pool under this cluster for future development VMs. Create a 4
GHz CPU limit and a 256 MB memory limit
Cluster Name: PROD-A
Resource Pool Name: DevRP
CPU Limit: 4 GHz
Memory Limit: 256 MB
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