Which of the following fields of management focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of
a system's or product's performance and its functional and physical attributes with its requirements,
design, and operational information throughout its life?
Configuration management is a field of management that focuses on establishing and maintaining
consistency of a system's or product's performance and its functional and physical attributes with its
requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life.
Configuration Management System is a subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a
collection of formal documented procedures used to identify and document the functional and
physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component of the project.
It also controls any changes to such characteristics, and records and reports each change and its
implementation status. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels
necessary for authorizing and controlling changes. Audits are performed as part of configuration
management to determine if the requirements have been met.
Answer option C is incorrect. The procurement management plan defines more than just the
procurement of team members, if needed. It defines how procurements will be planned and
executed, and how the organization and the vendor will fulfill the terms of the contract.
Answer option B is incorrect. Risk Management is used to identify, assess, and control risks. It
includes analyzing the value of assets to the business, identifying threats to those assets, and
evaluating how vulnerable each asset is to those threats.
Answer option D is incorrect. Change Management is used to ensure that standardized methods and
procedures are used for efficient handling of all changes.
Which of the following are the ways of sending secure e-mail messages over the Internet?
Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose two.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) are two ways
of sending secure e-mail messages over the Internet. Both use public key cryptography, where users
each possess two keys, a public key for encrypting, and a private key for decrypting messages.
Because PGP has evolved from a free distribution, it is more popular than S/MIME.
Answer option A is incorrect. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an application layer protocol that uses
a combination of public and symmetric key processing to encrypt data.
Answer option D is incorrect. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standard-based protocol that
provides the highest level of VPN security. IPSec can encrypt virtually everything above the
networking layer. It is used for VPN connections that use the L2TP protocol. It secures both data and
IPSec cannot be used with Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).
Reference: TechNet, Contents: "Ask Us About... Security, October 2000"
You work as a Senior Marketing Manger for Umbrella Inc. You find out that some of the software
applications on the systems were malfunctioning and also you were not able to access your remote
desktop session. You suspected that some malicious attack was performed on the network of the
company. You immediately called the incident response team to handle the situation who enquired
the Network Administrator to acquire all relevant information regarding the malfunctioning. The
Network Administrator informed the incident response team that he was reviewing the security of
the network which caused all these problems. Incident response team announced that this was a
controlled event not an incident. Which of the following steps of an incident handling process was
performed by the incident response team?
According to the question, incident response team announced that this was a controlled event not an
incident. Incident response team performed the identification step to rectify the incident.
Identification is the first post-attack step in Incident handling process. In this phase of the incident
handling process, the Incident Handler determines whether the incident exists or not. An incident is
described as an event in a system or network that poses threat to the environment. Identification of
an incident becomes more difficult with the increase in the complexity of the attack. The Incident
Handler should gather all facts and make decisions on the basis of those facts. Incident Handler
needs to identify the following characteristics of an attack before it can be properly processeD.
Which of the following is the process performed between organizations that have unique hardware
or software that cannot be maintained at a hot or warm site?
The reciprocal agreements are arrangements between two or more organizations with similar
equipment and applications. According to this agreement, organizations provide computer time to
each other in the case of an emergency. Theses types of agreements are commonly done between
organizations that have unique hardware or software that cannot be maintained at a hot or warm
Answer option B is incorrect. A business impact analysis (BIA) is a crisis management and business
impact analysis technique that identifies those threats that can impact the business continuity of
operations. Such threats can be either natural or man-made. The BIA team should have a clear
understanding of the organization, key business processes, and IT resources for assessing the risks
associated with continuity. In the BIA team, there should be senior management, IT personnel, and
end users to identify all resources that are to be used during normal operations.
Answer option C is incorrect. The duplicate processing facilities work in the same manner as the hot
site facilities, with the exception that they are completely dedicated, self-developed recovery
facilities. The duplicate facility holds same equipment, operating systems, and applications and
might have regularly synchronized data. The examples of the duplicate processing facilities can be
the large organizations that have multiple geographic locations.
Answer option A is incorrect. A cold site is a backup site in case disaster has taken place in a data
center. This is the least expensive disaster recovery solution, usually having only a single room with
no equipment. All equipment is brought to the site after the disaster. It can be on site or off site.
Which of the following involves changing data prior to or during input to a computer in an effort to
Data diddling involves changing data prior to or during input to a computer in an effort to commit
fraud. It also refers to the act of intentionally modifying information, programs, or documentations.
Answer option C is incorrect. Eavesdropping is the process of listening in private conversations. It
also includes attackers listening in on the network traffic. For example, it can be done over telephone
lines (wiretapping), e-mail, instant messaging, and any other method of communication considered
Answer option D is incorrect. Spoofing is a technique that makes a transmission appear to have come
from an authentic source by forging the IP address, email address, caller ID, etc. In IP spoofing, a
hacker modifies packet headers by using someone else's IP address to hide his identity. However,
spoofing cannot be used while surfing the Internet, chatting on-line, etc. because forging the source
IP address causes the responses to be misdirected.
Answer option B is incorrect. Wiretapping is an act of monitoring telephone and Internet
conversations by a third party. It is only legal with prior consent. Legalized wiretapping is generally
practiced by the police or any other recognized governmental authority.
Drag and drop the various evidences in the appropriate places.
The various categories of evidences required in forensics can be divided into a number of categories,
depending on its reliability, quality, and completeness. These categories are as follows:
Best evidence: It is the original or primary evidence rather than a copy or duplicate of the evidence.
Secondary evidence: It is a copy of the evidence or an oral description of its contents. It is not as
reliable as the best evidence.Direct evidence: It proves or disproves a specific act through oral
testimony based on information gathered through the witness's five senses.
Conclusive evidence: It is incontrovertible evidence, which overrides all other evidence.
Opinions: The following are the two types of opinions:
1. Expert: It offers an opinion based on personal expertise and facts.
2. Non expert: It can testify only to facts.Circumstantial evidence:It is the inference of information
from other, intermediate, relevant facts.
Hearsay evidence: This evidence is commonly not admissible in court. It is a third-party evidence.
Computer-generated records and other business records fall under the category of hearsay evidence
because these records cannot be proven accurate and reliable.
Reference: CISM Review Manual 2010, Contents: "Incident Management and Response"
Which of the following penetration testing phases involves reconnaissance or data gathering?
The pre-attack phase is the first step for a penetration tester. The pre-attack phase involves
reconnaissance or data gathering. It also includes gathering data from Whois, DNS, and network
scanning, which help in mapping a target network and provide valuable information regarding the
operating system and applications running on the systems. Penetration testing involves locating the
IP block and using domain name Whois to find personnel contact information.
Answer option A is incorrect. The attack phase is the most important phase of penetration testing.
Different exploitive and responsive hacking tools are used to monitor and test the security of systems
and the network. Some of the actions performed in the attack phase are as follows:
Penetrating the perimeter
Executing, implanting, and retracting
Answer option C is incorrect. The post-attack phase involves restoring the system to normal pre-test
configurations. It includes removing files, cleaning registry entries, and removing shares and
connections. Analyzing all the results and presenting them in a comprehensive report is also the part
of this phase. These reports include objectives, observations, all activities undertaken, and the
results of test activities, and may recommend fixes for vulnerabilities.
Mark works as a security manager for SoftTech Inc. He is involved in the BIA phase to create a
document to be used to help understand what impact a disruptive event would have on the
business. The impact might be financial or operational. Which of the following are the objectives
related to the above phase in which Mark is involved?
Each correct answer represents a part of the solution. Choose three.
A, B, C
The main objectives of Business Impact Assessment (BIA) are as follows:
Criticality prioritization: the entire critical business unit processes must be identified and prioritized,
and the impact of a disruptive event must be evaluated. The non-time-critical business processes will
need a lower priority rating for recovery than time-critical business processes.
Down-time estimation: The Maximum Tolerable Downtime (MTD) is estimated with the help of BIA,
which the business can tolerate and still remain a viable company. For this reason, the longest period
of time a critical process can remain interrupted before the company can never recover. It is often
found that this time period is much shorter than estimated during the BIA process. This means that
the company can tolerate only a much briefer period of interruption than was previously thought.
Resource requirements identification: The identification of the required resources for the critical
processes is also performed at this time, with the most time sensitive processes receiving the most
Answer option D is incorrect. This is the invalid answer because performing vulnerability assessment
is a step taken by BIA to achieve the above mentioned goals.
Which of the following recovery plans includes specific strategies and actions to deal with specific
variances to assumptions resulting in a particular security problem, emergency, or state of affairs?
A contingency plan is a plan devised for a specific situation when things could go wrong. Contingency
plans include specific strategies and actions to deal with specific variances to assumptions resulting
in a particular problem, emergency, or state of affairs. They also include a monitoring process and
triggers for initiating planned actions.
Answer option B is incorrect. Disaster recovery is the process, policies, and procedures related to
preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a
natural or human-induced disaster.
Answer option A is incorrect. It deals with the plans and procedures that identify and prioritize the
critical business functions that must be preserved.
Answer option C is incorrect. It includes the plans and procedures documented that ensure the
continuity of critical operations during any period where normal operations are impossible.
Which of the following protocols is used with a tunneling protocol to provide security?
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is used with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). It is a standard-
based protocol that provides the highest level of virtual private network (VPN) security. IPSec can
encrypt virtually everything above the networking layer. It secures both data and password.